Berries as Anti Oxidants

Berries: emerging impact on cardiovascular health
• Common berries include blackberry, black raspberry, blueberry, cranberry, red raspberry, and strawberries
• Less common berries include acai, black currant, chokeberry, and mulberries
• They are low in calories, high in moisture and fiber, have antioxidants like vitamins C and E, and micronutrients like folic acid, calcium, selenium, a- and b-carotene, and lutein among other supplements; Make sure to monitor your supplement stacks.
• 400 anthocyanins (blue, violet, or red flavonoid pigment found in plants) in berries; mainly on skin of fruits
• Red berry fruits are an exception, where content and colour intensity are proportional
• Berry or berry flavonoids are protective against CV health
• 13 year study on men: the higher the berry intake, the lower the risk of CVD
• 16 year study on women: the higher the strawberry consumption, the lower the CVD mortality; the higher the blueberry consumption, the lower the CHD (coronary heart disease) mortality; the higher the anthocyanin consumption, the lower the risk of CVD mortality in postmenopausal women
• 11 year study on women: highest consumption of strawberries reduced CVD and elevated CRP (inflammation; risk factor for CVD).
• Conversely, there is an overall anti-inflammatory effect of berry flavonoids (decreases CVD risk)
• Other studies: acai berries, black currants, bilberries, boysenberries, blueberries, chokeberries, cranberries, lingon berries, raspberries, strawberries, and wolfberries raise plasma or urinary antioxidant capacity, lower LDL oxidation and lipid peroxidation, lower plasma glucose or total cholesterol, and raise HDL cholesterol
• Berries also work against postprandial metabolic and oxidative stresses linked to CAD
• Study: conventional berry products of purified anthocyanin extracts with specific berries (bilberry and black currant extracts, chokeberry juice, cranberry extracts, and freeze-dried strawberries) decreased plasma glucose or lipid profiles in individuals with metabolic risk factors like type ½ diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, or metabolic syndrome
• One study on healthy men after cranberry juice intake and another study on individuals with CVD factors after mixed berry intake showed that systolic blood pressure was significantly reduced; the cranberry juice treatment also showed that adhesion molecules were significantly reduced
• Oxidative damage and inflammation can be reduced as a result of berry anthocyanins; combat progression of atherosclerosis and CVD
• Elderberry anthocyanins demonstrate cellular bioavailability
• Elderberry anthocyanins also demonstrate reduce cytotoxicity (from oxidative stress)
• Blackberry extract anthocyanins also reduce preoxynitrite induced oxidative damage
Mulberry anthocyanins also have antiooxidative and antiatherogenic properties
• Anthocyanins decrease inflammation
• Blueberries reduce insulin resistance and hyperglycemia
• Berries can influence inflammation, glucose and lipid abnormalities
• Greater vascular permeability, introduction of inflammatory cytokines, and development of peroxynitrite (strong oxidizing agent) can result from nitric oxide
• Nitric oxide that is formed via inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) promotes inflammation
• Blackberry extract can inhibit NO synthesis
• Nitric oxide that is formed via endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), on the other hand, is important for maintaining cardiovascular homeostasis (modulates blood pressure and decreases endothelial dysfunction)
• Berry anthocyanins aid in lipid metabolism
• Development of dyslipidemia and obesity in animal models can be prevented via purified anthocyanins from blueberries and strawberries combined with drinking water
• Cranberry juice is also an anti-hyperlipidemic agent

Basu A, Rhone M, Lyons TJ. Berries: emerging impact on cardiovascular health. Nutr Rev. 2010 Mar;68(3):168-77. doi: 10.1111/j.1753-4887.2010.00273.x. Review. PubMed PMID: 20384847; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3068482.

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